Calf Pain is something we don’t ignore in Cardiac Rehabilitation programs. It can be a symptom of a number of things life threatening, severe or minor. So what are we looking for?
Symptoms of blood clot in leg
This is called Deep Vein Thrombosis or DVT
Only about half of the people who have DVT have signs and symptoms. These signs and symptoms occur in the leg affected by the deep vein clot. They include:
- Swelling of the leg or along a vein in the leg
- Pain or tenderness in the leg, which you may feel only when standing or walking
- Increased warmth in the area of the leg that’s swollen or painful
- Red or discolored skin on the leg
Some people aren’t aware of a deep vein clot until they have signs and symptoms of PE. Signs and symptoms of PE include:
- Unexplained shortness of breath
- Pain with deep breathing
- Coughing up blood
Rapid breathing and a fast heart rate also may be signs of PE.
Blood clots occur when blood thickens and clumps together. Most deep vein blood clots occur in the lower leg or thigh. They also can occur in other parts of the body. A blood clot in a deep vein can break off and travel through the bloodstream. The loose clot is called an embolus. It can travel to an artery in the lungs and block blood flow. This condition is called Pulmonary Embolism or PE.
PE is a very serious condition. It can damage the lungs and other organs in the body and cause death. It’s fatal in up to 26% of cases.
Blood clots can form in your body’s deep veins if:
- A vein’s inner lining is damaged. Injuries caused by physical, chemical, or biological factors can damage the veins. Such factors include surgery, serious injuries, inflammation, and immune responses.
- Blood flow is sluggish or slow. Lack of motion can cause sluggish or slow blood flow. This may occur after surgery, if you’re ill and in bed for a long time, or if you’re traveling for a long time.
- Your blood is thicker or more likely to clot than normal. Some inherited conditions (such as factor V Leiden) increase the risk of blood clotting. Hormone therapy or birth control pills also can increase the risk of clotting.
For Prevention measures to avoid blood clots click here
Symptoms of Peripheral Artery Disease
Peripheral Artery Disease is the most common reason for amputations of toes, feet and legs. The risk factors that cause heart disease also cause poor blood flow to other areas of the body. Calf pain while walking is a warning sign for 50% who have blockages in the legs. If peripheral artery disease is an issue it needs to be closely monitored.
Signs and symptoms of P.A.D. include:
- Weak or absent pulses in the legs or feet
- Sores or wounds on the toes, feet, or legs that heal slowly, poorly, or not at all
- A pale or bluish color to the skin
- A lower temperature in one leg compared to the other leg
- Poor nail growth on the toes and decreased hair growth on the legs
- Erectile dysfunction, especially among men who have diabetes
- Pain with walking or climbing stairs
People who have P.A.D. may have calf or leg pain, numbness, aching, or heaviness in the leg muscles pain or discomfort when walking or climbing stairs. You might also feel include cramping in the affected leg(s) and in the buttocks, thighs, calves, and feet. This discomfort may ease after resting. About 10 percent of people who have P.A.D. have claudication. This symptom is more likely in people who also have blockages or atherosclerosis in other arteries.
During physical activity, your muscles need increased blood flow. If your blood vessels are narrowed or blocked, your muscles won’t get enough blood, which will lead to symptoms. When resting, the muscles need less blood flow, so the symptoms will go away.
Learn more about Peripheral Artery Disease
A calf strain is an injury to the muscle. When a muscle is strained, the muscle is stretched too far. So stretching it isn’t going to make if feel better. Less severe strains pull the muscle beyond its normal excursion. These often are seen when people are doing more walking than they are used to, such as walking treadmills – especially when the grade is elevated. Also these are seen from poor footwear. People who haven’t exercised in years may have poor footwear. I have seen patients come in wearing slippers, heels, broken down shoes that have no shock absorption. More severe strains tear the muscle fibers and can even cause a complete tear of the muscle. Most commonly, calf strains are minor tears of some muscle fibers, but the bulk of the muscle tissue remains intact.
The amount of discomfort helps to determine the severity of the injury. Calf strains are usually graded as follows:
- Grade I Calf Strain: Mild discomfort, often minimal disability. Usually minimal or no limits to activity.
- Grade II Calf Strain: Moderate discomfort with walking, and limited ability to perform activities, such as running and jumping; may have swelling and bruising associated.
- Grade III Calf Strain: Severe injury that can cause inability to walk. Often patients complain of muscle spasm, swelling and significant bruising.
A muscle cramp is a sudden, uncontrolled contraction of a muscle. This type of pain is most commonly called a “charley horse.”
Leg cramps occur when the muscle suddenly and forcefully contracts.
Leg cramps usually last less than one minute, but may last several minutes before the contraction subsides. In some patients, the leg cramps occur primarily at night, and can awaken the patient from sleep. When the muscle cramp is severe or long lasting the muscles will be sore for a day or two following.
What causes a leg cramp?
The exact cause of a leg cramp is not well understood, but there are some risk factors that are thought to contribute to this condition:
- Muscle fatigue
- Heavy exercising
- High weight (not necessarily obesity)
- Electrolyte imbalances
- Medications (statins, prednisone, lasix…)
The most common cause that is typically seen in patients who develop leg cramps is exercising in an unusual way, meaning either more activity or a different exercise. Leg cramps are more common in older patients. Patients who weigh more are more prone to developing leg cramps. Also, some medications can cause side effects of leg cramping. Cramping is something that should be brought to the attention of your health care provider as soon as possible
Sources: National Heart Lung and Blood Institute