The Effects of Smoking on the Body

THE EFFECTS OF
SMOKING ON THE BODY

No matter how you smoke it, tobacco is dangerous to your health and affects your entire body.

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Mood Stimulation
Poor Vision
Anxiety and Irritability
Another Cold, Another Flu
Lung Cancer
Constricted Blood Vessels
High Cholesterol
Heart Disease
Stained Teeth
Smelly Hair
Diabetes Complications
Erectile Dysfunction
Early Menopause
Problems with Pregnancy
Appetite Suppressant
Coughing
COPD
Bronchitis
Too Much Clotting
Blood Cancer
Yellow Fingers
Wrinkly Skin
Bad Teeth
Infertility
Cancer Connection
Cervical Cancer
Problems for Newborns

The Effects of Smoking on the Body

Tobacco smoke is enormously harmful to your health. There’s no safe way to smoke. Replacing your cigarette with a cigar, pipe, or hookah won’t help you avoid the health risks associated with tobacco products.

Cigarettes contain about 600 ingredients. When they burn, they generate more than 7,000 chemicals, according to the American Lung Association. Many of those chemicals are poisonous and at least 69 of them can cause cancer. Many of the same ingredients are found in cigars and in tobacco used in pipes and hookahs. According to the National Cancer Institute, cigars have a higher level of carcinogens, toxins, and tar than cigarettes.

When using a hookah pipe, you’re likely to inhale more smoke than you would from a cigarette. Hookah smoke has many toxic compounds and exposes you to more carbon monoxide than cigarettes do. Hookahs also produce more secondhand smoke.

In the United States, the mortality rate for smokers is three times that of people who never smoked, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It’s one of the leading causes of preventable death.

– See more at: http://www.healthline.com/health/smoking/effects-on-body#sthash.NEa1CoE7.dpuf

Smoking and Heart Disease

Cardiovascular risk falls as inflammatory response falls,  inflammatory markers are good indicators of this risk reduction.

Smoking is a prime factor in heart disease, stroke, and chronic lung disease. The relationship between smoking and cardiovascular disease is well documented, as is the association of smoking with increased levels of inflammatory markers and accelerated atherosclerosis. It is also well known that when smokers quit, their risk of mortality and future cardiac events declines.

Smoking triggers an immunologic response to vascular injury, which is associated with increased levels of inflammatory markers, such as C-reactive protein and white blood cell count. Several studies have shown that such markers predict future cardiovascular events. Markers such as C-reactive protein are also increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In more plain terms smoking causes acute inflammatory stress on atherosclerotic plaque, thus increasing the chance of a rupture. And when your atherosclerotic plaque ruptures, or breaks off, the resulting thrombus can lodge itself in the artery and block the blood flow. Thus causing a heart attack or stroke.

Smoking cessation timeline – the health benefits over time

  • In 20 minutes, your blood pressure and pulse rate decrease, and the body temperature of your hands and feet increase.
  • Carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke reduces the blood’s ability to carry oxygen. At 8 hours, the carbon monoxide level in your blood decreases to normal. With the decrease in carbon monoxide, your blood oxygen level increases to normal.
  • At 24 hours, your risk of having a heart attack decreases.
  • At 48 hours, nerve endings start to regrow and the ability to smell and taste is enhanced.
  • Between 2 weeks and 3 months, your circulation improves, walking becomes easier and you don’t cough or wheeze as often. Phlegm production decreases. Within several months, you have significant improvement in lung function.
  • In 1 to 9 months, coughs, sinus congestion, fatigue and shortness of breath decrease as you continue to see significant improvement in lung function. Cilia, tiny hair-like structures that move mucus out of the lungs, regain normal function.
  • In 1 year, risk of coronary heart disease and heart attack is reduced to half that of a smoker.
  • Between 5 and 15 years after quitting, your risk of having a stroke returns to that of a non-smoker.
  • In 10 years, your risk of lung cancer drops. Additionally, your risk of cancer of the mouth, throat, esophagus, bladder, kidney and pancreas decrease. Even after a decade of not smoking however, your risk of lung cancer remains higher than in people who have never smoked. Your risk of ulcer also decreases.
  • In 15 years, your risk of coronary heart disease and heart attack in similar to that of people who have never smoked. The risk of death returns to nearly the level of a non-smoker.

Secondhand-smoke-effects-infographic

http://www.lung.org/stop-smoking/how-to-quit/

http://www.ffsonline.org/

http://www.quitnet.com/qnhomepage.aspx

 

Smoking effects results of coronary artery bypass surgery

Patients requiring bypass surgery should immediately quit smoking

Key Points

• Smoking causes dysregulation of enzymes in leg vein used for coronary bypass grafts.

• Smoking cessation does not completely return vein health to normal, even after 1 year.

• Patients who may require bypass surgery should stop smoking immediately to help preserve health and function of graft.

Newswise — Chicago—Smoking cessation even a year prior to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery does not fully normalize the changes smoking has made to the saphenous (leg) veins used for the surgery and may lead to later graft failure, according to a study published in the January 2013 issue of The Annals of Thoracic Surgery.

Sun Yongxin, MD and colleagues from Zhongshan Hospital at Fudan University in Shanghai, China, analyzed heart surgery outcomes in 208 patients undergoing elective CABG surgery. After dividing the patients into six groups based on the current quantity smoked and previous smoking status, the researchers found that heavy smoking noticeably increased matrix metalloproteinase enzyme levels in the saphenous vein. These enzymes have been linked to vein graft failure.

The researchers also found that while dysregulation of enzymes may gradually normalize after smoking cessation, a noticeable vein recovery needs at least 6 months, and vein enzymes do not completely return to normal levels even after 1 year.

“Although recovery after smoking cessation appears somewhat disappointing, it illustrates exactly the importance of prompt smoking cessation for patients who will receive CABG,” the researchers wrote.

The ultimate goal of CABG is to achieve complete revascularization with conduits that will remain open for the duration of the patient’s lifetime.

About 1.1 billion people— one in every three adults—are smokers, according to the World Health Organization. China is the world’s largest producer and consumer of cigarettes with more than 350 million residents reporting being current or former smokers.

Understanding Smoking’s Effects May Lead to Treatment Changes
Greater saphenous vein grafts are the most commonly used vessels for CABG surgery. Although the study identifies smoking as a significant risk factor for vein graft failure, the exact mechanisms of this relationship are not entirely understood.

“[This study] may provide the evidence for encouraging the use of more arterial grafts [rather than vein grafts] when heavy smokers undergo CABG,” wrote the authors.

In an accompanying invited commentary in The Annals, Shahab A. Akhter, MD, from the University of Chicago Medicine, said understanding more about how enzymes affect the durability of saphenous vein grafts may lead to new therapies for heart surgery patients with a history of smoking.

In the meantime, Dr. Akhter promoted the value of not smoking. “Smoking cessation is important to maintain cardiovascular health in a preventative manner and also to maximize the results of bypass surgery in patients who will benefit from this operation,” he said.